Substitute token types based on vectorized one-to-one matching. Since this function is created for lemmatization or user-defined stemming. It supports substitution of multi-word features by multi-word features, but substitution is fastest when pattern and replacement are character vectors and valuetype = "fixed" as the function only substitute types of tokens. Please use tokens_lookup() with exclusive = FALSE to replace dictionary values.

  valuetype = "glob",
  case_insensitive = TRUE,
  verbose = quanteda_options("verbose")



tokens object whose token elements will be replaced


a character vector or list of character vectors. See pattern for more details.


a character vector or (if pattern is a list) list of character vectors of the same length as pattern


the type of pattern matching: "glob" for "glob"-style wildcard expressions; "regex" for regular expressions; or "fixed" for exact matching. See valuetype for details.


logical; if TRUE, ignore case when matching a pattern or dictionary values


print status messages if TRUE

See also



toks1 <- tokens(data_corpus_inaugural, remove_punct = TRUE) # lemmatization taxwords <- c("tax", "taxing", "taxed", "taxed", "taxation") lemma <- rep("TAX", length(taxwords)) toks2 <- tokens_replace(toks1, taxwords, lemma, valuetype = "fixed") kwic(toks2, "TAX") %>% tail(10)
#> Keyword-in-context with 10 matches. #> [1925-Coolidge, 3004] a living we must have | TAX | #> [1925-Coolidge, 3116] correct course to follow in | TAX | #> [1981-Reagan, 273] for their labor by a | TAX | #> [1981-Reagan, 290] productivity But great as our | TAX | #> [1981-Reagan, 1521] and to lighten our punitive | TAX | #> [1985-Reagan, 496] were right to believe that | TAX | #> [1985-Reagan, 1106] lives We must simplify our | TAX | #> [1985-Reagan, 1418] permanently control Government's power to | TAX | #> [1985-Reagan, 1438] spend its citizens money and | TAX | #> [2013-Obama, 739] remake our government revamp our | TAX | #> #> reform The method of raising #> and all other economic legislation #> system which penalizes successful achievement #> burden is it has not #> burden And these will be #> rates have been reduced inflation #> system make it more fair #> and spend We must act #> them into servitude when the #> Code reform our schools and
# stemming type <- types(toks1) stem <- char_wordstem(type, "porter") toks3 <- tokens_replace(toks1, type, stem, valuetype = "fixed", case_insensitive = FALSE) identical(toks3, tokens_wordstem(toks1, "porter"))
#> [1] TRUE
# multi-multi substitution toks4 <- tokens_replace(toks1, phrase(c("Supreme Court")), phrase(c("Supreme Court of the United States"))) kwic(toks4, phrase(c("Supreme Court of the United States")))
#> Keyword-in-context with 4 matches. #> [1857-Buchanan, 441:446] which legitimately belongs to the | #> [1861-Lincoln, 2323:2328] to be decided by the | #> [1861-Lincoln, 2465:2470] fixed by decisions of the | #> [1889-Harrison, 408:413] by the organization of the | #> #> Supreme Court of the United States | of the United States before #> Supreme Court of the United States | nor do I deny that #> Supreme Court of the United States | the instant they are made #> Supreme Court of the United States | shall have been suitably observed